**Spacetime & Substance**

International Physical Journal

**CONTENTS of No. 4(14)-2002**

Angelo Loinger.GRAVITY AND MOTION (145)

Savita Gehlaut, A. Mukherjee, S. Mahajan & D. Lohiya.A FREELY COASTING UNIVERSE (152)

Fangpei Chen.THE RESTUDY ON THE DEBATE BETWEEN EINSTEIN AND LEVI-CIVITA AND THE EXPERIMENTAL TESTS (161)

A. Pradhan and O. P. Pandeyc.CONFORMALLY FLAT SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC COSMOLOGICAL MODELS-REVISITED (169)

R. Ruffini, M. Lattanzi, C. Sigismondi and G. Vereshchagin.CHEMICAL POTENTIAL OF MASSIVE NEUTRINOS IN AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE (174)

D.L.Khokhlov.SPACE-TIME IN THE CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF QUANTUM MECHANICS (179)

Alex M. Chepick.WHY THE HUBBLE PARAMETER GROWS UP? (181)

Alex M. Chepick.DOPPLER EFFECT AGAINST SCALE-FACTOR (183)

Fabio R. Fernandez.MORE ON FEYNMAN LECTURES BY J. GUALA-VALVERDE (184)

Jorge Guala-Valverde.WHY HOMOPOLAR DEVICES CANNOT BE ADDITIVE? (186)

DISCUSSION.(188)

2ND GRAVITATION CONFERENCE IN KHARKIV.(190)

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Several arguments concerning the relativistic vexatae quaestiones of the gravity field of a point mass and of the wavy gravity fields.

A strictly linear evolution of the cosmological scale factor is surprisingly an excellent fit to a host of cosmological observations. Any model that can support such a coasting presents itself as falsifiable model as far as classical cosmological tests are concerned. This article discusses the concordance of such an evolution in relation to several standard observations. Such evolution is known to be comfortably concordant with the Hubble diagram as deduced from current supernovae Ia data. It passes constraints arising from the age and gravitational lensing statistics and just about clears basic constraints on nucleosynthesis. Such an evolution exhibits distinguishable and verifiable features for the recombination era. The overall viability of such models is discussed.

After making a thorough investigation on the debate between Einstein and Levi-Civita at 1917-1918 and on the Einstein's doubt, the conservation laws of Lorentz and Levi-Civita is reaffirmed. Some new specific properties of gravitational field or gravitational wave are deduced from these laws. These new specific properties are distinct from the prevalent views, for example: the gravitational field is possessed of only zero or negative energy density; the deflection and the delay of echo pulses for gravitational waves acted by external gravitational field in vacuum do not exist; the background gravitational waves are not similar to the radiations of black-body in spectrum type; the gravitational bremsstrahlung with positive energy is not existent; etc. These specific properties are expounded in detail and by using these specific properties some experiments or observations to test the conservation laws of Lorentz and Levi-Civita are offered.

A conformally flat spherically symmetric cosmological models representing a charged perfect fluid as well as a bulk viscous fluid distribution have been obtained. The cosmological constant $\Lambda$ is found positive and is decreasing function of time which is consistent with the recent supernovae observations. The physical and geometrical properties of the models are also discussed.

We discuss recent constraints on degeneracy parameters and neutrino masses, focusing on cosmological implications of neutrinos. When neutrinos are considered as Dirac particles with quite high values of degeneracy parameter adopted, the contribution of two flavors to the total density parameter of the Universe can be as high as $\Omega_\nu=0.45$. In this case constraints on other cosmological parameters like $\Omega_{CDM}$ and$\Omega_{\Lambda}$ have to be reconsidered. Otherwise, if neutrinos are Majorana particles or neutrino oscillations are important at the early Universe, energy density of neutrinos is negligible. The Jeans mass and free streaming of degenerative neutrinos are considered.

From the viewpoint of quantum mechanics, the classical electromagnetic field is considered as a dual particle-wave object the space coordinate and the momentum of which are defined separately. The coordinate space-time is defined by the Galilei transformation. The momentum space-time is defined by the Lorentz transformation. Since the coordinate space-time is defined by the Galilei transformation, observers in the rest and in the moving frames describe events in the same way.

The increase during time of the Hubble parameter is explained from the point of view of the state Universe model. Also it is demonstrated why measurements give now and will give in future a decreasing of the Hubble constant.

The impossibility of usage of the Doppler effect's relativistic formula for definition of a Hubble constant in the expanding Universe is demonstrated most shortly and simply.

Guala-Valverde calculations are improved in order to get the correct sign for the induced emf.

Following our task on electrodynamic homopolar induction, we report new experimental evidence which gives strong support to the relational (i.e. absolutely relativistic) Weber's electrodynamics, disproving the customary absolutistic models. The non additivity of homopolar machines only can be understood within a relational framework.

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