**Spacetime & Substance**

International Physical Journal

**CONTENTS of No. 4(24)-2004**

Harry Yosh.QUANTUM FIELD THEORY FOR GRAVITY AS SCALAR FIELD (145)

A.Pradhan and O.P.Pandey.TILTED BIANCHI TYPE I UNIVERSES FOR BAROTROPIC PERFECT FLUID IN GENERAL RELATIVITY (149)

KazuoOtaCottrell.A STUDY OF KINETIC ENERGY TO CLARIFY THE ROLE OF $gamma $ IN THE TRANSFORMATION OF VARIABLES REPRESENTING PHYSICAL QUANTITIES (154)

R.A.Achilles.FIELD THEORY FICTIONS AND GHOSTS (162)

KazuoOtaCottrell.A REEXAMINATION OF THE ROLE OF REST MASS IN SPECIAL RELATIVITY (163)

D.L.Khokhlov.THE GRAVITATIONAL MASS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD (172)

V.F.Tihonov.VOLUMETRIC POLARIZATION MODEL OF HYDROGEN ATOM (177)

V.S.Scherbak.PHYSICAL NATURE OF GRAVITATIONAL AND INERTIAL FORCES (180)

V.F.Tikhonov.ALL-SUFFICIENT POLARIZING MODEL OF HYDROGEN ATOM (182)

Jorge Guala-Valverde.FRAUDS IN 20-ST CENTURY PHYSICS (186)

J.Guala-Valverde$blacktriangle$, P.Mazzoni$blacklozenge$, O.Figueroa$clubsuit$.TESTING $qv = IDelta L$ FOR ELECTROLYTIC CURRENTS (188)

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Newton's gravitational theory is regarded as a linear approximation of general relativity. Therefore the quantization of scalar gravitational field in Newton's theory is also thought to be an approximation of that of general relativity. Under that approximation, the relation of inertial mass and gravitational mass is discussed from the viewpoint of quantum field theory. It is shown that the terms of inertial mass and gravitational mass in Lagrangian follow the same gauge transformation. The scattering amplitude for the interaction mediated by the gauge field derived from that gauge transformation is calculated in some examples and the difference of that interaction from electric interaction is discussed on the process of renormalization.

In this paper, we have investigated that tilted Bianchi type I cosmological model for stiff perfect fluid under a supplementary condition $A = B^{2}$ between the metric potentials, is not possible. To preserve tilted nature of model, we consider dust fluid model of perfect fluid and a supplementary condition $A = B^{-\frac{1}{3}}$ between metric potentials is used. The physical and geometrical aspects of the models together with singularity in the models are also discussed.

In this paper, we show that $hv$ and all expressions for energy which are equivalent to it represent kinetic energy rather than total energy. The object velocity, $u$, is found to be relativistically invariant, along with the frequency of an object's de Broglie wave. Using the mathematics of indeterminancy (a term coined by the author to describe the introduction of an exponential scale or phase factor), we are able to derive a form of $\gamma $ which emphasizes the underlying physics of the Galilean Transformation (GAL), the Lorentz Transformation (LT), and the general Einstein-Lorentz Transformation (GLT), rather than the details of each particular transformation. By requiring symmetry between the transformation properties of kinematic and dynamic variables, we find a more general transformation (MGT). For the condition $V \ge c$, in our spacetime, the (MGT) continues to describe a unique correspondence between the coordinates of two inertial frames of reference. We conclude by explaining how the logical necessity for zero rest mass in special relativity can be reconciled with physical observations of nonzero rest mass. In this way, it is also possible to show that the mass of an object does not become infinite if it were to move at the speed of light. Future theories may increase our understanding by providing more general representations of Nature. The various theories may be distinguished by the corresponding values of $\gamma $, the indeterminate part of which arises as the solution of an ordinary differential equation.

Absolutistic viewpoints on homopolar electrodynamics deserve to be thoroughly revisited under the light of recent relevant experimental evidences on the generalized prevalence of Newton's Third Law.

The standard argument that a photon must have zero rest mass is usually accepted on faith. In this paper, a thought experiment is performed to reexamine the question of whether the rest mass of a photon is really zero. This experiment leads to the conclusion that the photon has zero rest mass. This is consistent with conventional expectations. However , the experiment also leads to the conclusion that the rest mass of an arbitrary object is also identically equal to zero. Clearly, this violates common sense, and requires further explanation. An outline of this explanation, based on the fact that mass is an apparent quantity (one which is expressed by an indeterminate mathematical expression) has already been presented, using the mathematics of indeterminacy. It is suggested here that the parameter $\beta $ in the relativistic transformation equations defines a spacetime gauge of the type originally proposed by Weyl in 1918 that makes possible the constancy of the velocity of light. $\beta $ is characteristic of a particular spacetime manifold, and its value for our spacetime is calculated. We use the value of $\beta $ to extend the earlier explanation for observed nonzero rest mass of an arbitrary object by presenting the results of a calculation of the value of the experimentaly measurable rest mass and the inertial mass as a function of the de Broglie frequency. The electron is used as an example, and it becomes evident how an understanding of wave-particle duality can emerge from the symmetry between wave and particle properties which characterizes Nature when viewed through a model based on matter waves.

It is considered the interpretation of the theory of relativity in which all relativistic phenomena pertain only to electromagnetism while gravitation remains non-relativistic. It is derived the relation between the gravitational mass and the electromagnetic energy in the Newtonian mechanics. It is shown that description of the bending of light by a gravitating body in the Newtonian mechanics gives the same result as that in the general relativity.

The volumetric model of a hydrogen atom in which as a first approximation the proton is represented as the cylinder of the terminating sizes is considered. The proton will consist of the positive point charge (positron), the positive charge (plurality of positrons) and the negative charge (plurality of electrons) which enclose a positron and are equal on an absolute value. Both redistribution of a charge of a proton (polarization) and change of the geometrical sizes of a proton happens as a result of interaction of charges of a proton to an outer-shell electron. Parameters of model are spotted by a method of optimization (on three spectral lines of a series of Lajman). It set, that the experimental and settlement spectrums differ on quantity from 0.02 % up to 0.4 %. The estimation of a binding energy of a proton is given. It is shown, why the mobile electron cannot penetrate inside of a proton.

The representation about physical substance of a gravitation is given.

Volumetric model of hydrogen atom where the proton has the form of ellipsoid of the final sizes is considered. The proton consists of a positive dot charge (positron) and a positive charge (set of positrons) which it is surrounded a positron and a negative charge (set of electrons), positive and negative charge is equaled on absolute size. As a result of interaction of charges of a proton to external electron there is both redistribution of a charge of a proton (polarization), and change of the geometrical sizes of a proton. Parameters of model are determined by optimization technique (on three spectral lines of Lajman's series). It is determine that the experimental and design (the lines which are not participating in optimization) spectra differ in limits from 0.1\% to 0.6\%. Proton binding energy is calculated. It is show why a free electron does not to penetrate into proton. This testifies that the polarizing model of hydrogen atom is all-sufficient.

Wrong statements (which become true frauds) on standard electrodynamics are stressed under the light of experimental physics. Classical field theory deserves to be thoroughly re-formulated. ``Fixed field'' assumptions are nonsense. Inductive electrodynamics phenomena depend on the state of motion of the field source.

The relation $qv = I\Delta L$, advanced by Weber and Lorentz in order to get a microscopic interpretation to macroscopic ponderomotive forces acting on filamentary current carrying systems, was experimentally verified for ionic currents.

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