**Spacetime & Substance**

International Physical Journal

**CONTENTS of No. 1(21)-2004**

S.S.Sannikov-Proskuryakov.THE NEW COSMOLOGICAL MODEL (1)

Miroslav Sukenik and Jozef Sima.TIME AS A PHACE SPACE OF ALTERNATIVE REALITY (6)

Harry Yosh.STRUCTURE OF LEPTON (10)

Miroslav Pardy.THE SPACE-TIME TRANSFORMATIONS AND MAXIMUAL ACCELERATION (17)

S.S.Sannikov-Proskuryakov.WAVE MECHANICS ON THE BOHRS COMPACT (23)

V.R.Terrovere.EXPLANATION OF SENSE OF RELATIVISTIC MECHANICS (29)

Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov.MASS OF THE NEUTRINO AND ITS AXIAL - VECTOR ELECTROMAGNETIC NATURE (32)

Walter Cabrera-Febola.ON NATURAL STRUCTURES: THE UNIFICATION OF NATURE (34)

V.Krasnoholovets.MICHEL BOUNIAS AND HIS ROLE IN DEVELOPING A DEEPER KNOWLEDGE ABOUT REAL SPACE (42)

Emil Tatomir.THE NUMERICAL CALCULATION FOR THE CONVECTIVE COVER OF THE SUN HAVING THE NULL CONDITIONS AT THE SURFACE (46)

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Proceedings from the idea about existence of immediately non-observed (non-measurable, hidden) physical entity called pre-matter (quintessence or ether) a new cosmological scenario is described. Pre-matter is a kind of two level dynamical system called bi-Hamiltonian one. It is emphasized that the space of Universe may be in three different phase states: continuum, discontinuum, condensate. Three different quantum theories are connected with these space phases.

In appendix in the framework of the suggested theory percentage of relic helium and energy of physical vacuum are calculated.

This contribution is aimed at describing the time as a phase space of alternative reality (PSAR). Contrary to a space-time cone, stemming from the conception of real and imaginary times, the PSAR takes into account the whole Universe with its beginning and end. The Universe is characterized as an object with an infinitive number of alternative states in the past and future, but as a single state in the present.

Based on the identity of the gravitational field intensity of a hypothetical particle at a distance of its Compton wavelength $\lambda _C $ and that of a primordial black hole at its surface, the Compton wavelength is calculated as $\lambda _C = 9.336\times 10^{ - 29}$ m and the corresponding energy $E_{\max (calc)} = 1.328\times 10^{13}$ GeV. Since no present-time real particle may have a higher intensity of its gravitational field than a black hole has, the energy $E_{\max (calc)} $ is the maximum particle energy quantum at present. This energy exceeds the highest energy cosmic rays observed up-to-now (the Fly's Eye built in the Utah desert) $E_{\max (obs)} \cong 3.2\times 10^{11}$ GeV. To the energy $E_{\max (calc)} $, the minimum present ``elementary time interval'' (time of one wave cycle) of the value $t_{(\min )} \cong 3\times 10^{ - 37}$ s corresponds. This time is higher than the Planck time and is increasing with the Universe evolution. Relation to the conception of parallel universes is discussed.

Lepton is thought to be a point-like object. However lepton has various properties such as electric charge, flavor or generation, so it might be possible to consider lepton as the composite of more fundamental substances. Here lepton is supposed to be composed of two different particles ``$a-on$'' and ``$b-on$'' and their electroweak interaction is considered. As the consequence, the difference of masses among lepton generations is explained as caused from different eigenstates on that composite of $a-on$ and $b-on$. Finally the consistency of that model with Dirac equation is discussed under the low energy conditions.

We determine nonlinear transformations between coordinate systems which are mutually in a constant accelerated motion. In case of the symmetrical constant mutual acceleration, we immediately get the maximal acceleration limit which was derived by Caianiello from quantum mechanics. Maximal acceleration is an analogue of maximal velocity in special relativity. We discuss the possible verification of derived formulae by the measurement with ultracentrifuge. It is argued that the derived results can play crucial role in modern particle physics and cosmology.

It is demonstrated that oscillator with an infinite small frequency is described by a new quantum mechanics, in which configuration manifold is condensed (continuum endowed by the Bohr's measure). Hereby momentum space is dispersed (discontinuum). Thus the symmetry between both these manifolds taking place in the usual quantum mechanics is completely broken here. The set of wave functions described such a oscillator forms the non-separable Hilbert space. We consider the well known (living) forms of matter stand behind this theory.

Author demonstrates that a true sense of Relativistic Mechanics is a substitution of the material point with the revolving two-point structure. A neutral meson is this Structure. His Quarks "live" in the cylindrical world and the speed of Quarks is equal to $c$ always. According to the present interpretation Special Relativity describes the helix motion of the valent Quarks of particles. A ``Lorenz shortening'' means a change of the length of the particle wave. A deceleration of the physical time means a change of the Quark rotation frequency. A spiral motion of Quark explains a corpuscular --- wave dualism of quantum particles. A theory of Photon bears no relation to the Special Relativity's Kinematics. An Author's explanation of sense of Relativistic Mechanics is different from the view of Einstein in the main in Essence.

The neutrino possesses the anapole and electric dipole moments. Their interaction with field of emission can also lead to the neutrino elastic scattering by spinless nuclei. In this letter we present some implications implied from the processes cross sections. One of them states that there exists a hard connection between the neutrino magnetic and anapole moments. The equation for the anapole and electric dipole form factors is also obtained. They define the electronic neutrino axial - vector moments. All findings are generalized to the case of a Majorana neutrino.

Starting out from the statement of an objectivity principle, to reduce the plethora of subjectivism which has pervaded science until now, a unified approach to nature is proposed by means of the conceptualization of a natural structure (NE). It will be used the acronym NE, with E from the Spanish word ?estructura? equivalent to ?structure? in order to avoid any confusion with the usage in string theory of the acronym NS for the Neveu-Schwarz boundary condition or algebra. A number of complementary definitions are presented in order to clarify what is meant by the main concept. Some of the properties of natural structures which can at present be recognised are described.

Since it is important to be able to recognize natural structures in nature, it is shown that they exist at all levels from the micro to the macro world.

This is complemented by an attempt to answer a question that arises naturally from the forgoing: is the whole of nature composed of natural structures? It is found that, although this is basically the case, some entities could exist which are not exactly natural structures.

In a complementary paper some kinds of natural structures will be identified, and some general ideas which can be derived from the theory will be developed.\\

A brief story about late Professor Michel Bounias, a member of Advisory Board of S&S, is stated in the present note. His remarkable studies aimed at the understanding the constitution of the real space allow us to consider his findings as an actual breakthrough in the fundamental science. Bounias' studies shed light on the organization of space arranged as a mathematical lattice of topological balls -- founding elements of the real space. He investigated the space structure and the substructure of balls, fractality of the real space derived from first (submicroscopic!) principles and specified origins of matter, charge and fields and disclosed the way of their manifestation in the space tessellattice.

In this paper there is presented the way the integrated equations describe the structure of the convective cover. There are numerical results of the convective cover considering null conditions at the surface of the Sun.

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