**Spacetime & Substance**

International Physical Journal

**CONTENTS of No. 3(13)-2002**

Scott M. Hitchcock.THE CREATION OF TIME FROM SUBSTANCE AND SPACE (97)

Vasile Mioc.SYMMETRIES OF THE GRAVITATIONAL $N$-BODY PROBLEM (104)

Alex M. Chepick.THE CALCULATION OF THE INDISPENSABLE ACCURACY OF THE MEASURING OF AN EM-WAVES ENERGY (108)

Valery P. Dmitriyev.GRAVITATION AND ELECTROMAGNETISM (114)

Miroslav Sukenik and Jozef vSima.ELECTROMAGNETIC INFLUENCE ON GRAVITATIONAL MASS -- THEORY, EXPERIMENTS AND MECHANISM OF THE SOLAR CORONA HEATING (118)

A.M.Chepick.SUPREMUM OF THE INTERACTION SPEED OF THE MATTER (122)

Valeri V. Dvoeglazov.SOME MATHEMATICAL BASES FOR NON-COMMYTATIVE FIELD THEORIES (125)

Afsar Abbas.TO QUANTIZE OR NOT TO QUANTIZE GRAVITY? (127)

Angelo Loinger.RELATIVISTIC MOTIONS (129)

Antonio Alfonso-Faus.QUANTUM GRAVITY AND GENERAL RELATIVITY CONSISTENT WITH A DECREASING SPEED OF LIGHT AND MACHS PRINCIPLE (130)

Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov.THE UNITED THEORY OF THE TWO FIELDS OF THE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC NATURE (132)

Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov.ON THE TYPE OF THE SPIN POLARIZATION DEPENDENCE OF THE NEUTRINO MASS AND CHARGE (134)

Jorge Guala-Valverde.ON THE ELECTRODYNAMICS OF SPINNING MAGNETS (140)

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The 'problem of time' can be 'solved' by observing that 'time' is a computational artifact originating from the 'change' in the states and configurations of substance (matter) at all scales and levels of complexity in the space of an evolving Universe. 'Change' results from instabilities in the configurations of matter, which are driven by the fundamental forces into more stable configurations. The reconfiguration processes resulting in the hierarchical forms of matter throughout the universe are the fundamental sources of 'signals', which carry 'information' from one material system to another. The process of pairing signals, from one changing system (a standard clock) to 'observed' signals from another changing system, creates 'time labeled' information states or 'infostates'. The difference between the time labels for any two infostates is defined as the 'time' elapsed between the two observed events. 'Time' does not exist a priori, but is in fact a computed measure of change. The 'logic' involved in producing time labeled infostates is illustrated using a 'T-computer' model. The construction of a 'direction' and 'dimension' for 'arrows of time' follows from the 'time differences' between labels for the time labeled 'infostates'. The set of all time labeled infostates forms the basis for conventional 'time' coordinates.

We point out nice symmetries that characterize the Newtonian $N$-body problem expressed in configuration - momentum coordinates. For rectilinear, planar, and spatial motion (1D, 2D, and 3D problem, respectively), these symmetries form Abelian groups endowed with an idempotent structure. We generalize these properties to $n>3$ dimensions, to any homogeneous potential, and to barycentric coordinates.

The hypothesis of a ``tired light'' is now disclaimed by indirect signs. Within the framework of this hypothesis is demonstrated, that the energy $e=hH$ (where $h$ is the Planck constants, $H$ is the Hubble constant) is a value of energy that is lost by a photon in respect to one cycle of a light's wave, irrespective of a wavelength. Only having exceeding of the indicated measurement accuracy of energy, it is possible to demonstrate absence or presence of ``tired'' light directly in experiment. But in case of the state Universe it is possible to test this hypothesis by the obtained exponential dependence between redshift and distance up to a source.

Maxwell's equations comprise both electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The transverse part of the vector potential belongs to magnetism, the longitudinal one is concerned with gravitation. The Coulomb gauge indicates that longitudinal components of the fields propagate instantaneously. The delta-function singularity of the field of the divergence of the vector potential, referred to as the dilatation center, represents an elementary agent of gravitation. Viewing a particle as a source or a scattering center of the point dilatation, the Newton's gravitation law can be reproduced.

Based on the model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe, the aim of the present contribution is to contribute to the theoretical rationalization of some experiments, in particular of those performed by Podkletnov and de Aquino and devoted to the gravitational mass cessation, to offer a mechanistic explanation of the Solar corona heating, and to propose an experiment to verify the explanation of the heating in the Earth conditions.

Explanations of dependence on distance both for the $w$-factor of an absolute magnitude Type Ia Supernovae curve, and for till now not explained $s$-factor are given on the basis of the offered hypothesis about inequality of light's speed in vacuum and supremum of the interaction speed of a matter.

Misconceptions have recently been found in the definition of a partial derivative (in the case of the presence of both explicit and implicit dependencies of the function subjected to differentiation) in the classical analysis. We investigate the possible influence of this discovery on quantum mechanics and the classical/quantum field theory. Surprisingly, some commutators of operators of space-time 4-coordinates do not equal to zero. Thus, we provide the bases for new-fashioned noncommutative field theory.

It is shown here that the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics supports the view that gravity need not be quantized. It is shown that the SM gives a consistent description of the origin of the Universe. It is suggested that the Universe came into existence when the SM symmetry was broken spontaneously. This brings out a complete and consistent model of the physical Universe in the framework of a ``semiclassical quantum gravity'' theory.

A physical consequence of a well~-~known Fermi's theorem: no motion of masses can generate gravitational waves.

Interpreting gravity as the effect of the emission of quanta of negative mass we prove that any gravitational mass increases linearly with cosmological time. The preservation of Einstein's field equations as derived from the Action Principle forces the speed of light to decrease with cosmological time, a result consistent with the conservation of momentum. We then prove that Mach's Principle has the same form as the Equivalence Principle and therefore is included in these field equations.

Each of electrically charged particles testifies in favor of the existence of a kind of the magnetically charged monoparticle. As a consequence, only the corresponding mononeutrinos answer for quantization of the electric charges of all the neutrinos. Therefore, to understand the nature of matter at the fundamental level one must use the electromagnetic field as the field of the unified system of the photon and monophoton where the electric and magnetic forces of the nature are united. Some logical and laboratory confirmations of the availability of compound structure of gauge invariance have been listed which say also about the connection between the states of elementary particles and monoparticles.

Any non-zero component of charge implies the existence of a kind of the inertial mass. Therefore, each of existing types of the dipole moments must arise as a consequence of the availability of a kind of charge. From their point of view, the elastic scattering of completely longitudinal and transversal polarized neutrinos (antineutrinos) by spinless nuclei is discussed taking into account the united rest mass and charge, and also the magnetic, anapole and electric dipole moments of incoming fermions with neutral currents. Interconversions of neutrinos of the different components have been investigated, at which a particle chiral invariance is violated at the expense of the flip of its spin. This becomes possible owing to an intimate connection between these phenomena and character of the structure of a Dirac mass. Analysis of the studied processes cross sections assumed that both masses and charges of longitudinal and transversal neutrinos are strictly unidentical.

This paper deals with a crucial issue left open by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper in Annalen der Physik.

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