**Spacetime & Substance**

International Physical Journal

**CONTENTS of No. 1(6)-2001**

L.I. Petrova.THE ROLE OF CONSERVATION LAWS IN EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES (1)

N.A. Zhuck.FIELD FORMULATION OF THE GENERAL RELATIVITY AND PROBLEMS OF COSMOLOGY (24)

N.D. Kolpakov.NATURE AND MECHANISM OF GRAVITATION (31)

Arbab I. Arbab.A COASTING UNIVERSE WITH VACUUM ENERGY (39)

Jo. Guala-Valverde.THE IDENTITY OF GRAVITATIONAL MASS/INERTIAL MASS. A SOURCE OF MISUNDERSTANDINGS (42)

Sergey Siparov.COSMIC MASER AS A REMOTE QUANTUM DETECTOR OF THE GRAVITATIONAL WAVES: ON THE POSSIBILITIES OF THE OMPR-BASED METHOD (44)

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The paper concerns some specific features of the conservation laws that
explain the evolutionary process in the material systems and a mechanism of
formation of physical fields. It is known that in the material systems
the conservation laws for energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, and mass
are valid. These conservation laws establish a balance between a change of
a physical quantity and a relevant action to the system. Such conservation
laws may be referred to as balance conservation laws. To the physical structures
that format the physical fields there correspond the conservation laws as preserving
physical quantities. In the work it was shown that a transition from the
balance conservation laws for material systems to the conservation laws
for physical fields corresponds to an origin of the physical structures and
a formation of the physical fields. In material systems it reveals in the form
of origin of new formations (pulsations, waves vortices, creation of particles)
that are observable and measurable. We show that the noncommutativity
of the balance conservation laws is the basis of these processes.

Such results have been obtained by means of a mathematical tool utilizing the
exterior differential forms.

In the work a role of the conservation laws in formation of the pseudometric and
metric spaces is shown.

It is shown, that the Einstein equations with the cosmological term describe only the flat and static Universe. They are conversed to the field shape and are simplified under these requirements. The solution of these equations is found in the shape of the Yukawa potential, which contains the constant called as the gravitational interactions radius. The concept of a gravitational interactions area of a material body with the Universe is defined according to the constant. It is shown, that the given area changes its location in the space at acceleration or retarding of the body action. It is accompanied by energy change of the body gravitational connections with the Universe. The identity of inertial and gravitational masses is proved unambiguous at definition of the character and quantity of these changes according to the Mach principle.

Gravitation is one of manifestations of body's reciprocal influence through ether. The mechanism of a gravitation consists of a constant reciprocal irradiation of bodies by polarization waves (P-waves), which excite forces of the attraction of irradiated bodies by ether in the direction of their interaction. The mechanism of the excitation has code character: the stimulating and provoked forces are opposite on a direction (P-waves are not a ``pushing'', but a ``drawing'' ones in difference from electromagnetic and sound waves), and by value the raised forces of an attraction are larger than stimulating them P-waves forces. The energy of gravitation is a converted energy of ether. Before P-waves discovery [1-4] a nature and mechanism of gravitation could not be discovered on principle. A nature of gravitational interactions, as well as all other fundamental interactions (strong, electromagnetic and slight), is mechanical.

We have studied a cosmological model with a cosmological term of the form $\Lambda=3\alpha\fr{\dot R^2}{R^2}+\bt\fr{\ddot R}{R}+\fr{3\gamma}{R^2}\ , \ \alpha, \ \bt\ , \gamma$ are constants. The scale factor (R) is found to vary linearly with time for both radiation and matter dominated epochs. The cosmological constant is found to decrease as $t^{-2}$ and the rate of particle creation is smaller than the Steady State value. The model gives $\Omega^\Lambda=\fr{1}{3}$ and $\rm\Omega^m=\fr{2}{3}$ in the present era, $\rm\Omega^\Lambda=\Omega^m=\fr{1}{2}$ in the radiation era. The present age of the Universe $(\rm t_p$) is found to be $\rm t_p=H_p^{-1}$ , where $\rm H_p$ is the Hubble constant. The model is free from the main problems of the Standard Model. Since the scale factor $\rm R\propto t$ during the entire evolution of the Universe the ratio of the cosmological constant at the Planck and present time is $\rm\fr{\Lambda_{Pl}}{\Lambda_p}=10^{120}$. This decay law justifies why, today, the cosmological constant is exceedingly small.

With the aim of removing some frequent misunderstandings, I attempt to clarify the differences between inertial and gravitational mass.

A new method based on the phenomenon of the optical-mechanical parametric resonance is proposed to detect the gravitational waves. The atoms and molecules responsible for the radiation of the cosmic masers can be described in frames of the two-level system model. The distance between these atoms and the Earth oscillates when the gravitational wave falls upon them. This affects the observable maser spectrum and a low frequency nonstationary component appears on it. The frequency of this component corresponds to the frequency of the gravitational wave. The needed astronomical observations and the additional instrumentation are described.

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